NEWS + ANALYSIS
PAUL HOLLANDER

NEWS + ANALYSIS

VLADIMIR PUTIN, ANTI-AMERICANISM, AND RUSSIAN AUTHORITARIANISM

May 7, 2015 | by Paul Hollander

It is abundantly clear by now that the optimistic expectations nurtured by the collapse of the Soviet Union have not been realized. There were high hopes at the time, not only about post-communist Russia becoming a democratic society, but more generally about political democracy sweeping the whole world. We were about to enter what the prominent historian Francis Fukuyama called “the end of history” — that is, “the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” Similarly groundless expectations arose more recently in response to the so-called and short-lived “Arab Spring,” seen at the time as the harbinger of the transformation of Arab world autocracies into popular democracies.

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